A summary is now given of what was in fact Moses’ final activity before his death. They ceased to be His righteous one. a ‘And he said to them, Set your heart to all the words which I testify to you this day (Deuteronomy 32:46 a). Exodus 16:3). The begetting and bringing forth in pain may refer to the deliverance from Egypt. That is repeated here with the addition of the presence of Joshua. The point here is that they were not then to be seen as the people of the covenant, safe in their Overlord’s hand, for they had forfeited that (Exodus 32:10; Exodus 32:30-35; Numbers 14:11-12; Numbers 14:35), and had become ‘lost’, a whole generation dying in the wilderness (Numbers 14:35). Alternately, and possibly more likely, the thought may more be moral, that these products are the product of sin and corruption like that of Sodom and Gomorrah producing its bitter fruit in them. Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak; And hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. What we set our hearts on will determine our future. Yet they trust in it. They made Him jealous (compare Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 6:15; Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:14) with what was foreign, seeking to false gods and false religion, they provoked Him to anger with their idolatrous ways and behaviour. Lest their adversaries should judge amiss. Then the nature of his teaching is described. They were like unruly children who were perverse and totally lacking in loyalty. He Threatens Judgment On His Enemies (Deuteronomy 32:41-42). He declares Israel’s folly. Go to, To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient, Witnesses Are Called On To Bear Witness To His Words (, The Character of the Overlord Is Described (, The Charge Is Made Against the Covenant Breakers (, A Series of Questions Is Then Put To Them (, The Beneficence Towards Them of Their Overlord Is Outlined (, “According to the number of the sons of Israel.”, The Treacherous Nature of Their Behaviour Is Described (, His Verdict Is Withdrawn For The Sake of His Name (, He Declares Their Hopeless State Without Him (, Judgment Is Passed By Moses And Faithful Israel On Faithless Israel (, Rather Than Seeking Vengeance Yahweh Will Have Mercy On Them (, Yahweh Compares Himself With The Gods That They Have Worshipped (, Yahweh Will Deliver His People And Restore Them (, Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged, Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible, Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. In the same vein a common oath was, ‘As Yahweh lives’, and we may see here Yahweh taking the idea to Himself because there is no other to swear by. For the contrast between no-gods and no-people compare Hosea 1:9; Hosea 2:23. But in the end it would result in the responsive among the no-people, the Gentiles, being united with the faithful in Israel in forming the new Israel, the true church of God, which would indeed make unfaithful Israel jealous (compare 1 Peter 2:10). Note that in ‘a’ he is to see the land of Canaan which Yahweh is giving to the children of Israel for a possession. His doctrine is the gospel, the speech of God, the doctrine of Christ; the doctrine of grace and mercy through him, and of life and salvation by him. He spread abroad his wings, he took them. His arrows will slay innumerable foes, and His sword will devour their flesh. Yahweh is now seen as hesitating at the thought of destroying His people completely. Then Yahweh had surrounded them with His love, caring for them and protecting them as His babes over whom He kept watch. They will go over and possess it. “For Yahweh will judge (or ‘vindicate’) his people. They were thus helpless until He found them again. “According to the number of the sons of Israel.” Some have seen here a connection between the seventy members of Jacob’s household who went down into Egypt and the seventy nations in Genesis 10, but in view of the lack of mention of seventy here and in Genesis 10 that seems a little far fetched.